Past behaviour being reinforced when it was deemed to be helpful. Studies with children have shown that when a child’s helping behaviour is referred to as helpful; they are more likely to repeat he behaviour. Especialy if the helping behaviour has been modelled for them by someone who they feel is like them in some way. Banduras social learning theory where he found that children model the behaviour of people who are perceived by the child to be like the child in some way
Less people to take responsibility. The Kitty Genevieve case in which several people were aware of a woman being murdered yet stayed away from helping, possibly because they felt that others would get involved or because of their own need to preserve their self and safety. Social loafing is a phenomenon where people use less effort because they feel that others will take the slack and take up the effort.
Person identifies the situation as an emergency, according to the cognitive model proposed in 1970, if a person is going to be a prosocial bystander, it is important that the person attends to the situation and is also aware that the situation is an emergency. Even if this occurs, other factors may influence the helping behaviour, such as that suggested by the social exchange theory where people may not help others due to a lack of benefit in the situation to support a desire to help another person as there is no exchange which the individual deems to be of value.
The empathy-arousal hypothesis posits that people might help others due to feeling a sense of duty to others, through the process of identifying with the other person by stepping into the other persons frame of reference and wondering how they would feel if they were in that situation. This can then influence behaviour towards assisting the other person. This can happen consciously or non-consciously.
Moral hypocrisy as proposed by Batson(2011) states that people often appear to be morally integral, however will do whatever they can to actually be moral about helping others. In this instance, those who wish to appear moral and helpful might be willing to help if it assists them in serving their aim to be seen as moral.